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With the loss of its American colonies in 1783, the British Government sent a fleet of ships, the "First Fleet", under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, to establish a new penal colony in New South Wales. A camp was set up and the flag raised at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, on 26 January 1788,[59][60] a date which became Australia's national day, Australia Day. A British settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. [61] The United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Western Australia (the Swan River Colony) in 1828. [62] Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. [63] The Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia. [64] South Australia was founded as a "free province"—it was never a penal colony. [65] Victoria and Western Australia were also founded "free", but later accepted transported convicts. [66][67] A campaign by the settlers of New South Wales led to the end of convict transportation to that colony; the last convict ship arrived in 1848. [68]

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